86–87; Gott, pp. Gen. Ulysses S. Grant captured Fort Henry on the Tennessee River in February 1862, he turned his sights on nearby Fort Donelson on the Cumberland. 219–28, 339; McDonough, pp. , After the war, Buckner accepted an invitation to return to West Point to teach infantry tactics. Fort Henry had been a key position in the center of a line defending Tennessee, and the capture of the fort now opened the Tennessee River to Union troop and supply movements. ". Grant first visited C. F. Smith on the Union left, where Grant ordered the 8th Missouri and the 11th Indiana to the Union right, then rode 7 miles (11 km) over icy roads to find McClernand and Wallace. Februar 1862. Grant was not bluffing. During the night, Pillow escaped by small boat across the Cumberland. , Grant's Union Army of the Tennessee of the District of Cairo consisted of three divisions, commanded by Brig. Historian Kendall Gott suggested that it would have been more prudent to stay as far downriver as possible, and use the fleet's longer-range guns to reduce the fort. On April 19, Smith consolidated the District of Arkansas with the District of West Louisiana; the combined district was put under Buckner's command. Columbus was evacuated on March 2. Smith, and Lew Wallace. The Union brigades of Cols. Johnston evacuated Nashville on February 23, surrendering this important industrial center to the Union and making it the first Confederate state capital to fall.  In the days following the surrender at Fort Henry, Union troops cut the railroad lines south of the fort, restricting the Confederates' lateral mobility to move reinforcements into the area to defend against the larger Union forces. Gens. Bragg was also forced from Chattanooga and joined Buckner at Chickamauga. To Buckner's dismay, Grant showed no mercy towards men he considered to be rebelling against the federal government. 65, 122; Nevin, p. 79. Grant offered to loan Buckner money to see him through his impending imprisonment, but Buckner declined.  The department was a shell of its former self—less than one-third its original size, badly equipped, and in no position to mount an offensive. Richard Oglesby and John McArthur were hit hardest; they withdrew in a generally orderly manner to the rear for regrouping and resupply. , On February 6, Grant wired Halleck: "Fort Henry is ours.  In 1912, his health began to fail. Any large-scale escape would be difficult. Bushrod Johnson and Simon Bolivar Buckner. Grant arrived on February 12 and established his headquarters near the left side of the front of the line, at the Widow Crisp's house. (The second was John C. Pemberton's at the Siege of Vicksburg and the third Robert E. Lee's Army of Northern Virginia at Appomattox). " This time Wallace sent a brigade, under Col. Charles Cruft, to aid McClernand. The official results of the election gave Buckner a plurality of 16,797 over Bradley.  He arrived in Knoxville on May 11, 1863, and assumed command the following day. As Bragg pushed north, his first encounter was in Buckner's home town of Munfordville. THE BATTLE AT FORT DONELSON. Smith's two-brigade attack quickly seized the outer line of entrenchments on the Confederate right from the 30th Tennessee, commanded by Col. John W. Head, who had been left behind from Buckner's division. General A. Over 16,000 Confederate troops were now in Fort Donelson. At their final council of war in the Dover Hotel at 1:30 a.m. on February 16, Buckner stated that if C.F. Grant's army now divided Confederate Gen. Albert Sidney Johnston's two main forces: P.G.T. After graduating from the United States Military Academy at West Point, Buckner became an instructor there.  Though Buckner had favored George H. Pendleton, he loyally supported the party's nominee throughout the campaign. He was the Gold Democrats' candidate for Vice President of the United States in the 1896 election, but polled just over one percent of the vote on a ticket with John M. Palmer. When the note reached Grant, Smith urged him to offer no terms. Grant's brusque reply became one of the most famous quotes of the war, earning him the nickname of "Unconditional Surrender":. , A major financial scandal erupted in 1888 when Buckner ordered a routine audit of the state's finances which had been neglected for years. After a confrontation between the two generals, Buckner's troops moved out and, combined with the right flank of Pillow's wing, hit W. H. L. Wallace's brigade. His prediction proved correct, as negotiations between the federal government and Mormon leaders eased tensions between the two. At this point, Gideon Pillow, and Simon Bolivar Buckner, seasoned army-men, stepped into the field to ease the burden off of an inept John B. Floyd, who had been holding the fort hitherto. At Fort Donelson, Tennessee, Buckner had become the first Confederate general of the war to surrender an army; at New Orleans, he became the last. The following year, he joined the National Democratic Party, or "Gold Democrats", who favored a gold standard policy over the Free Silver position of the mainline Democrats. Most of Tennessee fell under Union control, as did all of Kentucky, although both were subject to invasion and periodic Confederate raiding. Buckner served on the court martial of Maj. Gen. Lafayette McLaws after that subordinate of Longstreet's was charged with poor performance at Knoxville. He accepted the position, but predicted that the unit would not see action. The attack suffered light casualties and made no gains, but Smith was able to keep up a harassing fire throughout the night. Gen. John A. McClernand, who had some reservations. Die Schlacht um Fort Donelson war eine Schlacht auf dem westlichen Kriegsschauplatz des Amerikanischen Bürgerkrieges, die vom 12. bis 16. Despite Grant's success to date, Halleck had little confidence in him, considering Grant to be reckless. Early in the morning of February 11, Grant held a council of war in which all of his generals supported his plans for an attack on Fort Donelson, with the exception of Brig. These trenches, located on a commanding ridge and fronted by a dense abatis of cut trees and limbs stuck into the ground and pointing outward, were backed up by artillery and manned by Buckner and his Bowling Green troops on the right (with his flank anchored on Hickman Creek), and Johnson/Pillow on the left (with his flank near the Cumberland River). , Johnston wanted to give command of Fort Donelson to Beauregard, who had performed ably at Bull Run, but the latter declined because of a throat ailment. There were three miles (5 km) of trenches in a semicircle around the fort and the small town of Dover. He served in this capacity until 1860, when the Guard was incorporated into the Kentucky State Guard's Second Regiment. , Floyd, who believed if he was captured, he would be indicted for corruption during his service as Secretary of War in President James Buchanan's cabinet before the war, promptly turned over his command to Pillow, who also feared Northern reprisals. General Grants troops surrounded the Fort. Robert Underwood Johnson, Clarence Clough Buell. 266–67; Esposito, maps 30–31. Just over a year later, he resigned the post in protest over the academy's compulsory chapel attendance policy. He was the first Confederate general to surrender an army in the war. Though Smith did cross the Rio Grande, he learned on his arrival that Buckner had traveled to New Orleans on May 26 and arranged terms of surrender. 165–66; Cooling. 231–35; Woodworth, pp. Gen. John B. Floyd, who had just arrived following an unsuccessful assignment under Robert E. Lee in western Virginia. Fort Donelson was fought from February 11 to February 16, 1862, in the Western Theatre of the American Civil War. Wood, who would become a Union Army general opposing Buckner at the Battle of Perryville and the Battle of Chickamauga during the Civil War. For six years, these three inhabited and repaired the house and grounds which had been neglected during the war and its aftermath. At Fort Donelson, Tennessee, Buckner had become the first Confederate general of the war to surrender an army; at New Orleans, he became one of the last. , With Floyd's arrival to take command of Fort Donelson, Pillow took over leading the Confederate left. Pillow, who arrived at Fort Donelson on February 9, was displaced from overall command of the fort when the more-senior Floyd arrived. Facing the Confederates, from left to right, were Smith, Lew Wallace (who arrived on February 14), and McClernand. Buckner joined many of his fellow generals in publicly denouncing Bragg's performance during the campaign. His failed proposals included creation of a department of justice, greater local support for education and better protection for forests. Pillow, normally quite aggressive in battle, was unnerved and announced that since their movement had been detected, the breakout had to be postponed. Gen. Daniel S. Donelson, who selected its site and began construction in 1861. "Simon Bolivar Buckner, Jr.". Forrest's troops, sent out by Buckner, spotted a detachment from McClernand's division and opened fire against them. Despite these advantages, the ticket was hurt by the candidates' ages, Palmer being 79 and Buckner 73. , Grant, who was apparently unaware of the battle, was notified by an aide and returned to his troops in the early afternoon. Articles incorporating a citation from the 1911 Encyclopaedia Britannica with no article parameter, Articles incorporating text from the 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica, Articles incorporating text from Wikipedia, American military personnel of the Mexican–American War, National Democratic Party (United States) politicians, People of Kentucky in the American Civil War, United States vice-presidential candidates, 1896, "Gold Democrats and the Decline of Classical Liberalism, 1896–1900", http://www.independent.org/publications/tir/article.asp?issueID=22&articleID=261, "Kentucky Governor Simon Bolivar Buckner", http://www.nga.org/cms/home/governors/past-governors-bios/page_kentucky/col2-content/main-content-list/title_buckner_simon.html, "Simon Bolivar Buckner: A Skillful and Judicious General", https://military.wikia.org/wiki/Simon_Bolivar_Buckner?oldid=5247049, Pages using duplicate arguments in template calls, "All acts of hostility on the part of both armies are to cease from this date. 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