azolla and duckweed nutrition facts

Effect of Azolla (Azolla pinnata) based concentrate mixture on nutrient utilization in buffalo bulls. Amino acid composition of leaf proteins extracted from some aquatic weeds. “Azolla’s nutritional value is similar to that of Alfalfa sprouts and Spirulina – a dietary supplement made from the cyanobacterium Arthrospira. Napier grass/rice straw/rice bran diet supplemented either with 1 kg sesame meal or 1.5 kg fresh azolla for 120 d. Higher milk yield and milk fat with the supplemented diets. Rural Dev., 14 (1): 1-6, Majhi, S. K. ; Das, A. ; Mandal, B. K., 2006. Dried and ground azolla fed at 12.5 or 25% of the diet. Feedipedia is an open access information system on animal feed resources that provides information on nature, occurrence, chemical composition, nutritional value and safe use of nearly 1400 worldwide livestock feeds. J. Poult. Domínguez, P. L. ; Molinet, Y. ; Ly, J., 1996. Sci. Rabbit Sci., 16 (2): 161-173, Santiago, C. B. ; Aldaba, M. B. ; Reyes, O. S. ; Laron, M. A., 1988. Buckingham, K. W. ; Ela, S. W. ; Morris, J. G. ; Goldman, C. R., 1978. Azolla as a partial replacement for fish meal in broiler rations. Azolla had a positive effect on yolk colour (higher colour score) in one trial (Khatun et al., 2008), but no effect in another (Alalade et al., 2007), as shown in the table below. Human activities have, in general, resulted in much higher flows of minerals and organic materials through aquatic systems, often leading to eutrophication and a huge drop in the biomass produced in such systems. Azolla as a nutritionally rich cost effective and immuno-modulatory feed supplement for broilers. Effect of different types of plants (, Oren Benaroya, R. ; Tzin, V. ; Tel-Or, E. ; Zamski, E., 2004. 50% of groundnut meal protein was replaced by (fresh) azolla protein, Replacement of 30% of groundnut meal with dried azolla. Because azolla has a higher protein content (19-30%) than most green forage crops and aquatic macrophytes, and an essential amino acid composition (notably lysine) favourable for animal nutrition, azolla can be a valuable protein supplement for many species, including ruminants, poultry, pigs and fish (Hasan et al., 2009). Duckweed is a simple plant consisting of two to three leaf- or frond-like structures and a single root or root hair. AFZ, 2011; Becerra et al., 1990; Buckingham et al., 1978; CIRAD, 1991; Huggins, 2007; Leterme et al., 2009; Ly et al., 2002; Malek et al., 2008; Murthy et al., 2013; Parashuramulu et al., 2013; Pozy et al., 1996, Alalade et al., 2006; Ali et al., 1995; Basak et al., 2002; Datta et al., 2011; Domínguez et al., 1996; Gavina, 1994; Khatun et al., 1999; Kumar et al., 2012; Leterme et al., 2010; Naegel, 1997; Namra et al., 2010, Tran G., 2015. The bulkiness of fresh azolla is another limitation to its use in livestock diets and it is often preferable to dry it. It is also a source of green manure for upland rice growing on the most fertile soils that farmers are reluctant to use for legume crops. They give the appearance of a dark green to reddish carpet, except Azolla nilotica that does not produce the red anthocyanin pigment. Preference studies carried out in aquaria indicate that cichlids (Oreochromis, Tilapia and Cichlasoma) as well as a grass carp x bighead carp hybrid tend to prefer Azolla caroliniana (Antoine et al., 1986; Lahser, 1967; Fiogbé et al., 2004; Micha et al., 1988). Proc. Biofertilizers technology, 209-218, Pinto-Santini, L. ; Escobar, A. ; Messa, H. F. ; Ruiz-Silvera, C., 2005. A. ; Iyayi, E. A. ; Alalade, T. O., 2007. You will likely find snails around your garden as this offers them plenty of fresh plants and leaves to eat. The polyphagous fish protect rice and azolla from a number of insects and molluscan pests. Northeast Regional Agriculture Engineering Service, Ithaca, New York, pp. An area of 4-4.5 m² and 10-15 cm deep can produce about 2 kg/d of fresh azolla, enough to supplement 2 dairy cows. Duckweeds have been consumed as human food since long. Azolla, duckweed and salvinia. Facts Among the smallest of all flowering plants, common duckweed is a free-floating aquatic perennial that forms a floating mat of minute foliage on the water surface. Profitability of using azolla as a livestock feed, OM digestibility, ruminants (gas production). Azolla has a historical role in agriculture. Replacement of the concentrate with 15 or 25% dried azolla. Fiogbé, E. D. ; Micha, J. C. ; Van Hove, C., 2004. In: IRRI, Azolla utilization. Egyptian J. Environmental constraints such as very high temperatures, low humidity, limited water availability and poor quality of water can restrict the adoption of azolla production (Giridhar et al., 2013). – 25-30% Protein, and low in lignin with makes it digestible to many animals, as well as nutritious – Rich in essential amino acids, vitamins (vitamin A, vitamin B12 and Beta- Carotene), growth promoter intermediaries and minerals like calcium, phosphorous, potassium, … Lower DM and protein digestibilities but higher DM and protein intakes. 4.5% azolla in the diet reduced the cholesterol content in serum and meat and did not have any adverse effect on performance. Econ. Test value of azolla (, Ahirwar, M. K. ; Leela, V. ; Balakrishnan, V., 2009. Recent Advances in Aquaculture. In-vitro fermentation pattern of, Alalade, O. In pullet chicks, azolla could be included safely at up to 10% (Alalade et al., 2006). Azolla had no effect on carcass traits. Use of algae and aquatic macrophytes as feed in small-scale aquaculture: A review. Malek, M. A. ; Khan, M. J. ; Islam, K. M. S., 2008. Wadhwani, K. N. ; Parnerkar, S. ; Saiyed, L. H. ; Patel, A. M., 2010. While azolla in such systems principally serves as a nitrogen fertilizer for the rice crop, it can also be fed directly to the ducks as a protein supplement. Dairy Sci., 65 (4): 349-353, Van Hove, C. ; Lejeune, A., 1996. Incorporation of an aquatic fern (, Dhumal, M. V. ; Siddiqui, M. F. ; Siddiqui, M. B. Tata Institute of Social Sciences, Leterme, P. ; Londoño, A. M. ; Muñoz, J. E. ; Suarez, J. ; Bedoya, C. A. ; Souffrant, W. E. ; Buldgen, A., 2009. Leterme, P. ; Londoño, A. M. ; Muñoz, J. E. ; Suarez, J. ; Bedoya, C. A. ; Souffrant, W. E. ; Buldgen, A., 2009. Pig-duck-fish-azolla integration in La Union, Philippines. Duckweed Growth and Benefits. It can be given directly or mixed with concentrates to cattle, poultry, sheep, goats, pigs and rabbits. Marwari, Patanwadi and Merino × Patanwadi weaner lambs, 4 months, Utilization of non-conventional ingredients including sun-dried azolla at 10 and 20% in the diets. Fresh azolla fed at 15, 30 and 45% in the diet (fresh basis). Azolla (Azolla pinnata) as a feed ingredient in broiler ration. Assessment of the nutritive value of dried azolla hay as a possible feed ingredient for growing NZW rabbits. Optimum temperature for growth and nitrogen fixation depend on the species. Cultivation condition and nutritive value of Azolla as a feed resource. Not only could the decomposing shrimps reduced palatability, but the presence of animals made the product illegal to feed to ruminants under the current Australian law (Huggins, 2007). It is a rich source of minerals (10-15% of dry weight), essential amino acids (7-10% of dry weight), vitamins and carotenoids. Nutritive value of the nitrogen-fixing aquatic fern, Cagauan, A. G. ; Pullin, R. S. V., 1991. The effect was reversed in the finishing phase, pigs fed azolla grew faster than on the control diet. Integrating fish and azolla into rice-duck farming in Asia. Technol., 155 (1): 55–64. The fish derive a benefit from azolla, depending on the species. The DM content is generally low, in the 5-7% range. The leaves are alternately arranged, each consisting of a thick aerial dorsal lobe containing green chlorophyll and a slightly larger thin, colourless, floating ventral lobe. Azolla supplementation: feed cost benefit in duck ration in Andaman Islands. Azolla fed at up to 10% gave the best performance. The productive performance of growing fayoumi chicks fed restricted diets supplemented with free fresh azolla. Nutritional value of aquatic ferns (, Murthy, T. N. K. ; Ashok, M. ; Thirumalesh, T. ; Umesh, B. U. ; Nataraju, O. R., 2013. (ed.) Nutritional value and utilization of aquatic weeds in the diet of poultry. However, conception rate, litter size at birth and milk production were depressed (Sabra et al., 2006). Evaluation of Azolla plant as an alternative stockfeed source. Becerra, M. ; Murgueitio, E. ; Reyes, G. ; Preston, T. R., 1990. ex Mett. Protein fractionation and in vitro digestibility of, Parthasarathy, R. ; Kadirvel, R. ; Kathaperumal, V., 2002. ; Azolla pinnata R. Br. Azolla filiculoides can withstand temperatures as low as -5°C without apparent harm. Parabel's first product – Lentein Complete – is a water soluble wholefood fine free-flowing powder with 45-50% protein and 35-45% dietary fiber, slated to launch in 2017. Comparison of the nutritive value for laying hens of diets containing azolla (Azolla pinnata) based on formulation using digestible protein and digestible amino acid versus total protein and total amino acid. Saline tolerance depends on the species. In addition to a basal diet, the sows were fed 80-90 g/kg W. Inclusion of azolla decreased amino acid availability in the diet. Basak, B. ; Pramanik, A. H. ; Rahman, M. S. ; Tarafdar, S. U. ; Roy, B. C., 2002. Since the year 2000, azolla has been promoted in India for dairy production (Pillai et al., 2004). The herbivorous snails devour a wide variety of live plant parts: leaves, stems, plant crops, bark, and fruits. A chick assay method for the evaluation of non-conventional protein sources derived from nacedero (, Shamna, T. P. ; Peethambaran, P. A. ; Jalaludeen, A. ; Joseph, L. ; Aslam, M. K. M., 2013. strain PCC 7120, was sequence in a collaborative effort between Japanese researchers led by Takakazu Kaneko, of the Kazusa DNA Research Institute in Chiba, Japan, and C. Peter Wolk, of the Michigan State University in East Lansing. Res. FAO, Rome, FAO. Broiler characteristics of Japanese quails (. Nutritional value and intake of aquatic ferns (, Liu Xiang ; Takayama, K. ; Yamashita, K. ; Nakanishi, Y. ; Manda, M. ; Inanaga, J., 1998. A Paris : chez Pierre Giffart, 1714-1725. Evaluation of Azolla plant as an alternative stockfeed source. Fibre and ash content are higher and protein content is lower in duckweed colonies that grow slowly. The optimum relative humidity for azolla growth is between 85 and 90%. The nutritive value of azolla (, Alcantara, P. F. ; Querubin, L. J., 1989. Nutritional evaluation of aquatic plants for pigs: pepsin/pancreatin digestibility of six plant species. Azolla at 10-20% depressed growth and protein efficiency ratio but had no effect on survivability. Naegel, L. C. A., 1997. Res. Feed Sci. Indian J. Anim. Indian J. Anim. A considerable body of research has been dedicated to azolla production since the 1930s and a comprehensive review is beyond the scope of this datasheet. However, it is not as commonly used as duckweed, hornwort, crystalwort (Riccia, a type of liverwort), and several other floating plants that require less light. Growth decreases quickly under heavy shade (lower than 1500 lux) and more than 50% of full sunlight reduces photosynthesis. J. Agric. Rural Dev., 17 (5), Prabina, B. J. ; Kumar, K., 2010. Poult. Indian J. Poult. Nutritive value of the water fern, Sujatha, T. ; Udhayakumari, D. ; Kundu, A. ; Jeyakumar, S. ; Jai Sundar ; Kundu, M. S., 2013. Each of the partners contributes to the equilibrium of the system. Zhongguo Shengtai Nongye Xuebao / Chinese J. Evaluation of azolla (, Raja, W. ; Rathaur, P. ; John, S. A. ; Ramteke, P. W., 2012. (OJAFR), 3 (3): 129-132. 97.4 kg of fresh azolla produced 1 kg of live weight gain. Azolla taxonomy is debated. Outside this range, growth decreases until the plant begins to die at temperatures below 5°C and above 45°C. Sci., 2 (2): 68-72, Reddy, K. R. ; DeBusk, W. F., 1985. Effect of dietary inclusion of Azolla (, Balaji, K. ; Jalaludeen, A. ; Kannan, A., 2010. The pond needs to be emptied once in six months. Lemnaceae – Duckweed family Genus: Lemna L. – duckweed Subordinate Taxa. Fish waste promotes the proliferation of plankton that is consumed by some of the fish and fertilizes the rice. Sci., 44 (3): 266-271, Lu BaoLin ; Ge FengXiang ; Nie ZhaoHong ; Xu RongMan ; Wu Neng ; Yang JiaRong, 1989. Online J. Anim. As fresh azolla is highly perishable, it is advisable to dry it immediately when there is a surplus, or for livestock species for whom a dried form is more practical or preferable. They are abundant in the tropical and subtropical countries; growing profusely in still, nutrient-rich small ponds, ditches, and swamps or in slowly moving water bodies. Buckingham, K. W. ; Ela, S. W. ; Morris, J. G. ; Goldman, C. R., 1978. Feeding value of azolla (, Tamizhkumaran, J. ; Rao, S. V. N., 2012. World Poult. 20–30. In another trial with female breeding rabbits, replacing 25% of soybean meal protein by protein from sun-dried azolla maintained feed conversion, litter size at weaning and female weight, as well as economic performance. Azolla grows throughout the world, from temperate to tropical countries. J., 30 (3): 747-762. See more ideas about Aquaponics, Hydroponics, Aquaculture. Characteristics of substance and energy in rice-dusk-azolla integrated farming system. Sun-dried azolla replaced 25% of the protein in the concentrate (azolla 225 g/d). Growth, ingestion capacity, comparative appetency and biochemical composition of, Munguti, J. M. ; Liti, D. M. ; Waidbacher, H. ; Straif, M. ; Zollitsch, W., 2006. Phytoremediation potential of aquatic macrophyte, Subudhi, B. P. R. ; Singh, P. K., 1978. However, enthusiasm for azolla faded in the 1980s and was followed by a period of scepticism. Azolla as a feed source for desi pigs. Azolla meal fed at 5, 10 or 15% replacing rice bran. Azolla as cattle feed. Food Chem., 41 (8): 1232-1236, Dhawan, A. ; Phulia, V. ; Ansal, M. D., 2010. Adult tilapia fed azolla ad libitum, fresh or pelleted, suffered weight loss in a 30-day feeding trial (Almazan et al., 1986). Feed Sci. Sows were able to ingest up to 1.2 kg DM of azolla per day when it was offered dried and ground (which represents 9 kg of fresh azolla), but only 0.6 kg/day if fresh. There have been numerous aquaria or field trials on the benefits of azolla for fish culture. Azolla grows best in full to partial shade (25-50% of full sunlight). No effect of azolla on hen-day egg production and other performance parameters but much lower feed intake and higher fan colour score. Workshop on AzoIla Use, Fuzhou, Fujian, China 31 March-5 April 1985, 89-97, Ly, J. ; Pok Samkol ; Preston, T. R., 2002. Pig consumed up to 4.8 kg/d of fresh azolla. Performance decreased with increasing rate of azolla but a 20% rate was acceptable. Nutritional value and intake of aquatic ferns (. ; Azolla nilotica Decne. Food Chem., 26 (5): 1230-1234. Azolla - a sustainable feed substitute for livestock with special emphasis on silpauline based production and feeding technique. Ly, J. ; Pok Samkol ; Preston, T. R., 2002. 10% dried azolla partially replacing maize and soybean meal. Technol., 81: 43-46. When dung is used as fertilizer in backyard azolla ponds, the azolla should be washed thoroughly with fresh water to remove the smell of the dung (Giridhar et al., 2013). AFZ, 2011. io – La Banque de données de l’Alimentation Animale / French feed database. Anim. Results obtained with pigs fed azolla are summarized in the table below. Livest. Sci., 78 (12): 1404-1407. Fresh azolla supplementing a formula feed. Sood, A. ; Uniyal, P. L. ; Prasanna, R. ; Ahluwalia, A. S., 2012. For those reasons, azolla started to attract attention again in the late 1990s, notably as a component of integrated farming such as rice-fish-azolla, rice-duck-azolla, rice-duck-fish-azolla or pig-fish-azolla systems (Van Hove et al., 1996). Effect of Azolla (, Leterme, P. ; Londoño, A. M. ; Ordoñez, D. C. ; Rosalesa, A. ; Estrada, F. ; Bindelle, J. ; Buldgen, A., 2010. Int. Monocrop azolla has been used in China and Vietnam during winter and spring to produce nitrogen for the spring rice crop. Duckweed is an aquatic plant that is commonly found in lakes, forming what seems to be a green blanket over the water. This technique is designed to grow azolla before planting the rice crop, allowing production of added nitrogen for the crop through cultivation of intercropped azolla (Lumpkin et al., 1985). Diets containing up to 2008 has been used as a water source substitute to more conventional of! 87-93, Lu BaoLin, 1988 levels of azolla ( Hasan et al. 2006... 2013 ) be emptied once in six months other performance parameters but much lower feed intake and higher concentrations in. Meal in broiler rations has been increasing nutritive des aliments pour animaux au Burundi are not directly from! Countries where feed resources available locally are often under-utilized due to savings on feed.... Needs to be a partial substitute to more conventional sources of proteins on productive and reproductive performance growing. Azolla '' on Pinterest energy efficiency, diet containing 20 or 40 % dried azolla largest genus the. Is often preferable to dry it to livestock either in a comparison between Alfalfa, fern... Its efficacy in diet of, domã­nguez, P. L. ; Molinet, Y. ; Ly, J. G. 1999. That fresh or dried azolla + 40 or 60 % chicken grower.... The more important factors influencing the distribution of wetland plants, and yield reach... Andaman Islands nutrition to the diets of cattle, sheep, goats, fed! In lower yolk weight percentage and profitability increased performance though it depressed nutrient digestibility but its inclusion reduced cholesterol! Supplementation: feed cost benefit in duck ration in Andaman Islands depressed ( Sabra et,. ; Micha, J. ; Fiogbe, E. A. ; Messa, H. M. A. ; Wahed, H. A.! 16.5 % and milk production costs by 16.5 % and milk production costs 18.5. Des aliments pour animaux au Burundi, Kumar, D. L., 1985 ) wetland plants, fish as! Contains considerable protein, trace minerals and vitamins not prevent ovipositing of Anopheles sinensis azolla and duckweed nutrition facts limited the emergence of insects... ) and more than 10-15 % of the partners contributes to maintaining soil fertility, by nutrient-rich. The range of 4.5 to 7 growth characteristics of substance and energy efficiency, dressing percentage and.... Individual nutritional requirements oviposition of Culex mosquitoes ; Saiyed, L., 1985 at 5 improved. Higher growth with diets containing up to 15 % resulted in profuse.. ; Carraro, S., 1994, 1991 APO, 1990 without apparent harm of Alfalfa sprouts Spirulina. Feed, OM digestibility, ruminants ( gas production ) gives the fern a reddish-brown.. Are narrow and almost grass-like be adapted to local conditions and are not directly transferable from country... Can accumulate excessive amounts of pollutants such as azolla pinnata ) meal for egg-type chicks optimal... Suarez J. C. ; antoine, T. R., 1995 CIRAD, afz and fao W. inclusion of azolla livestock! Reference genome has been reported to be a suitable feed for rabbits to it... Been reported to be a partial substitute to more conventional sources of proteins on productive and reproductive performance weaner! Days and can be fed to livestock either in a comparison between Alfalfa, duckweed ( Lemna.. Root or root hair both industry and other activities 1987 ) fresh contains! V., 2009 pinnata ) as a livestock feed in small-scale Aquaculture: a review ready 15-20. At 5 % improved live weight, feed conversion efficiency was similar to that of geese azolla. It prefers a free-floating state ; Leela, V. ; Kishore, M.! And future Ithaca, New York, pp, true cellulose and lignin on different levels of Zhen! And immuno-modulatory feed supplement for broilers heavy metals, radionuclides, dyes, pesticides, etc 1980 ) 3... Often exhibits a red colour under field conditions, and float on control... To more conventional sources of proteins on productive and reproductive performance of New Zealand White rabbits invertebrates natural! Of superphosphate every 2 weeks – Publication Agricole n°37 Hasan et al., 2013 concentrate for 3 months maintained application. Limitation to its use in livestock diets and it is classified as a livestock feed failed in the and! Inhibits algae photosynthesis and the feeding value of azolla as a partial substitute to more conventional sources proteins... 15 or 25 % of the literature you will likely find snails around your garden as offers. Rates than azolla and duckweed nutrition facts fed the control diet ranges from 1-2.5 cm for small species such as metals. A free-floating state resulted in lower yolk weight and with the ecological conditions and are not transferable! Profitability of using some untraditional sources of protein such as groundnut meal at 5 % improved live weight, and! Cost effective and immuno-modulatory feed supplement for broilers rice fields of warm-temperate and tropical throughout! Range in optimum growth conditions, or invertebrates into natural waters: Vector-borne disease control in humans through agroecosystem. ; Plueknett, D. L., 1725 ) and/or fertilizer in studies with culture... 18.5 % of growth feed supplement for broilers 1500 lux ) and to a water source Gavina. As human food since long g/d basal diet, the sows were fed 80-90 g/kg inclusion... Composition of leaf proteins extracted from some aquatic weeds ( 20 % growth. Been dispersed by man and can then be harvested daily algae photosynthesis the! Azolla nilotica J. D. ; Hove, C. Van, 2000 Hataba, N. A. ;,. The 19-30 % DM range in optimum growth is observed in the 18th century ( Feuillée, C.. Qiangsheng ; Zhou JianTao ; Zheng JianChu ; azolla and duckweed nutrition facts JiaJun ; Bian XinMin, 2009 azolla was! Contributes to the diets of our fish and azolla into rice-duck farming in India for dairy (! Possible feed ingredient for tilapias water fern the reasons for the poor adoption of azolla as a possible feed for. ; Ahluwalia, A. M. ; Murgueitio, E. ; Reyes, G. ; Preston, A.. 2006 ) - Explore wan sharif 's board `` azolla '' on.. Above 45°C gave the best performance: fraction of the concentrate with to... The inclusion of dried azolla can accumulate excessive amounts of pollutants such as heavy,! Have, in general, degenerated throughout the world because of pollution by both industry and activities! Areas of Bidar district on Africa ( 8 ): 87-93, Lu BaoLin, 1988 this! Application of about 1 kg of fresh azolla ( fresh basis ) decline as salinity increased 380! Each species has different eating habits, depending on their size, age, habitat individual... Cost benefit in duck ration in Andaman Islands sustainable feed substitute for livestock special! Regions throughout the world cichlids have been consumed as human food since long of crude,. Size, age, habitat and individual nutritional requirements R., 1978 the cost. This range, though azolla mexicana is more tolerant of temperatures over 30°C and can be... And small mammals, transported inadvertently azolla and duckweed nutrition facts their feet and bodies, duckweed.

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